Saturday, February 15, 2020

International Law Of The Sea Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

International Law Of The Sea - Essay Example Part VII of the Agreement deals with living resources of the high seas through Article 116, Article 117, Article 118, Article 119 and Article 120. Before delving deep into the functions of the fisheries management organisations it is of great concern to know what the UNCLOS Articles state on the role of the regional fishery management organisations. Article116 provides the right to fish to all the countries and their citizens to practice fishing on the high seas on certain conditions, which include: (a) Their treaty responsibilities; (b) the rights and duties as well as the stakes of coastal nations provided for, among other things, in article 63, paragraph 2, and articles 64 to 67; and (c) The conditions as given in this Section. Under Article117, the concerned state has responsibility to follow with regard to its citizens assess for management of the marine resources of the high seas. Cooperation with other states in this regard is central to the conservation of marine resources on the high seas (UNCLOS). Under Article 118, the spirit of Article 117 is taken ahead through cooperation states shall take fresh steps and enter into accords with other states for commercially using the similar water resources or dissimilar water resources on the same region with the purpose of conserving the water resources. It is the responsibility of the states to set up regional or sub-regional fisheries organisations (UNCLOS). Article 119 is also dedicated to conservation of fish stocks of the high seas. 1. It stipulates conditions on deciding the permissible catch and setting up other safeguarding steps for the fish stocks, such as: (a) found suitable as based on scientific knowledge on which the concerned states can depend upon for preserving the fish populations of cropped species at standards that ensure long term production as based on suitable environmental and economic considerations, particularly of the developing countries, considering the fishing methods at all levels of fishing – regional, sub-regional and international; (b) States pay attention to the impact on the species related to or relying on harvested species with the aim of preserving fish populations of such related or relying on species beyond limits at which their populations could not be increased through breeding. 2. All global organisations working for conservation and management of fish stocks shall communicate and exchange related scientific facts, catch and fishing statisitics at all levels of cooperation, regional, sub-regional and global with the suitable active contribution from the respective governments of the organisations. 3. Fishermen shall be treated impartially irrespective of the fact related to their specific state citizenship rights while taking conservative steps and enforcing them. Article120 is meant for marine mammals; Article 65 is also relevant to the conservation and management of marine mammals in the high seas (UNCLOS). An attempt at analysing the r ole of RFMOs will include all regional groups. First of all an attempt on the conservation and management of the Northeast Atlantic Region will be made to be followed up with an assessment of the other regions (UNCLOS). Northeast Atlantic Region The production data on chondrichthyans from 1985-2006 in the Northeast Atl

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Has the IMF played a condtructive or destructive role Does it serve Essay - 1

Has the IMF played a condtructive or destructive role Does it serve any purpose in the 21st century - Essay Example The IMF has grown and experienced changes over the last years. Many have embraced this change, while there has been some that have not accepted it. Its members have been increasing, from the initial thirty to over 188 members. This organisation claims to foster financial stability, global monetary corporation and economic stability to its members (Freytag pg 20-30). Its objectives are geared towards promoting international economic, Corporation, creation of employment, establishing sustainable exchange rate and availing funding to its member states. The role of the international fund about the 21st century is addressed by analysing the success and failure rate. Since its debut, this organisation has funded numerous nations, where there has been failure or success. The facts present a concrete factor that present this organisation as failing. Though there are success cases, the failures often lower the impact of these cases. One notable case is the one witnessed in Tanzania. After the IMF stepped in to save this declining economy, its economy lowered. The employment rate decreased and the literacy level dropped. All this occurred within period from 1985 to 2000 (Research Activities of the International Monetary Fund: January 1991-December 1998 pg 26-30) Conclusively, the role played by this organisation cannot be ignored. It continuously helps nations to recover from economic failures. It is lending surveillance police have benefited many and still proves to in years to come. In order to change the faulty image over the years, there must be some adjustments. This adjustment will enhance its role and make it productive as many presume it to