Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â° (mÃ ©i yÃâu) in Mandarin meansÃ havent, hasnt, doesnt exist, to not have, and to not be. Pronunciation Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â° is pronounced Ã¢â" ºmÃ ©i yÃâu.Ã Ã¦ ² ¡ is in the 2nd tone, whereas Ã¦Å"â° is spoken in the 3rd tone. This can also be written as: mei2 you3. Chinese Characters Traditional Form: Ã¦ ²âÃ¦Å"â°Simplified Form: Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â°The first character Ã¦ ²â /Ã Ã¦ ² ¡ (mÃ ©i) is a negative prefix for verbs. The second character Ã¦Å"â° (yÃâu) is the verb for to have; there is; there are; to exist; to be. Put together,Ã Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â° means to not have, to not be, or to not exist. Sentence Examples Audio files are marked with Ã¢â" º Ã¢â" ºTÃ mÃ ©i yÃâu shuÃ huÃÅ½ng.Ã¤ »â"Ã¦ ²âÃ¦Å"â°Ã¨ ª ªÃ¨ ¬Å Ã¤ »â"Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â°Ã¨ ¯ ´Ã¨ °Å½He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t tell a lie. Ã¢â" ºMÃ ng tiÃ n wÃâ mÃ ©i yÃâu kÃ ng.Ã¦ËÅ½Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ËâÃ¦ ²âÃ¦Å"â°Ã§ © ºÃ¦ËÅ½Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦ËâÃ¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â°Ã§ © ºI dont have any free time tomorrow. MÃ ©i yÃâu yÃ ¬yÃ ¬Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â°Ã¦â Ã¤ ¹â°Its pointless / There is no meaning. WÃâ gÃân tÃ mÃ ©i yÃâu liÃ ¡nxÃ ¬Ã¦ËâÃ¨ ·Å¸Ã¤ »â"Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â°Ã¨ âÃ§ ³ »I have no relation with him.Ã ZhÃ ¨ mÃ ©i yÃâu yÃ ²ngÃ¨ ¿â¢Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"â°Ã§â ¨This is useless/(more literally) This has no use.
Monday, December 23, 2019
The video we were asked to write a reflection on discussed The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness which is a book written by Michelle Alexander a highly acclaimed civil rights lawyer, advocate and Associate Professor of Law at Ohio State University. Michelle Alexander states that although we made tremendous progress with Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s by unifying as a race and fought to seemingly ended the old Jim Crow era by the passing of laws such as the 1965 voting act and Brown V.S Board Of Education which overturned Plessey V.S Ferguson; African Americans went through horrifying ordeals to destroy the old Jim Crow system but it was never eructated but in actuality redesigned in the form of our criminal justice system; but before expounding on AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s New Jim Crow it is essential to discuss what exactly The Old Jim Crow was. The old Jim Crow was a system of segregation and discrimination that barred African Americans Americans from a s tatus equal to that of white Americans; the original Jim Crow was laws created after slavery ended, which promoted racial discrimination in vast areas of African American lives such as public housing, employment, voting, and education. In 1865 the abolition of slavery was meant to bring about significant changes in American society specifically on the lives of African Americans. However, the newly freed slaves dealt with a fluctuation of liberty and oppression through the Jim Crow Laws after theShow MoreRelatedThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesunrecognizable ways that fit into the fabric of the American society to render it nearly invisible to the majority of Americans. Michelle Alexander, in her book, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness shatters this dominantly held belief. The New Jim Crow makes a reader profoundly question whether the high rates of incarceration in the United States is an attempt to maintain blacks as an underclass. Michelle Alexander makes the assertion that Ã¢â¬Å"[w]e have not ended racial caste in America;Read MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBook Review Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness The premise of the Ã¢â¬ËThe New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of ColorblindnessÃ¢â¬â¢ by Michelle Alexander, is to refute claims that racism is dead and argue that the War on Drugs and the federal drug policy unfairly targets communities of color, keeping a large majority of black men of varying ages in a cycle of poverty and behind bars. The author proves that racism thrives by highlighting theRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthose who did read her book The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration In The Age of Colorblindness. Michelle Alexander stated that The most despised in America is not gays, transgenders, nor even illegal immigrants - it is criminals. That was an important quote since the stereotypical criminal in our racially divided America in most cases are those of color also known as blacks. This is why the criminal justice system in the United States promotes the mass incarceration of blacks that can be seen throughRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color Blindness, by Michelle Alexander. The New Press, 2010. 290 pages. Reviewed by Ashlei G Cameron. Michelle alexander is a highly acclaimed civil rights lawyer, advocate and legal scholar. As an associate professor of law at Standford law school, she directed the Civil Rights Clinic and pursued a research agenda focused on the intersection of race and criminal justice. In 2005. Alexander won a Soros Justice Fellowship that supported the writingRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHunter Silver Dr. Kendall Smith English 103-4120 10 November 2015 High Incarceration Rates Due to Racism Racism effects the the high incarceration rates according to Michelle Alexander, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. This scholar writes about how the civil rights movement has been taken back by the mass incarceration of black Americans in the war on drugs. Alexander also explains how the severe consequences that these black men carry on afterRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness outlines how the criminal justice system has systematically designed new methods of discriminating against African Americans. The book advocates for racial justice, specifically, for African Americans and contends they [African Americans] were targeted and subsequently incarcerated, by white voters and public officials, through the War on Drugs campaign. President Reagan and his Administration exploited racialRead MoreThe New Jim Crow Mass Incarceration Essay1797 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJim Crow laws are regarded as part of the racial caste system that operated in the Southern and Border States in the years between 1877 and the mid-1960s. Under the series of the anti-black laws, African Americans were treated as inferior and second class citizens. The laws have been argued to have represented the legitimization of the anti-black racism in the US. The book The New Jim Crow Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness is written by Michelle Alexander and originally published byRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Michelle AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, examines mass incarceration in the United States, why the criminal justice system works the way it does towards minorities, the detriments associated with mass incarceration as it relates to offenders, and much more. In the introduction of her book, A lexander immediately paints the harsh reality of mass incarceration with the story of Jarvious Cotton who is denied the right to vote among other rights becauseRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration Essay1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press, 2010. Study Questions for Ã¢â¬Å"The New Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ : 1) What is the relationship between the War on Drugs and the spread of crack cocaine through inner city neighborhoods in the 1980s? President Ronald Reagan officially announced the current drug war in 1982, before crack became an issue in the media or a crisis in poor black neighborhoods. A few years after the drug war was declared, crackRead MoreThe New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn 2013, Michelle Alexander published her book, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, hoping it served as a call to action. Immediately this book received a huge amount of attention because of the controversial topics presented. This book opened a lot of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes to the term colorblindness, a sociological perspective referring to the disregard of racial characteristics. There is no racial data or profiling, no classifications, and no categorizations or distinctions
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Introduction: Hong Kong, known asÃ¢â¬ Pearl of the OrientÃ¢â¬ which enjoys the freedom of speech, the freedom of economy and the finest legal system. However, discrimination is everywhere. It is because people are not equally. We will write a custom essay sample on Sex Discrimination Is Non-Existentin the Workplace in Hong Kong or any similar topic only for you Order Now It would always be inequality among people referring to physical and mental processes. Of course the two sexes are not equal, so that sex discrimination is always an issue in a society, especially in workplace. Background: It is a matter of fact that a employer will base on their education background, belief, own interest and preference to hire the staffs and even for the promotion, benefits, bonus. And women have the traditionally and historically been subjected to legal discrimination form their gender. Some of this mind set still on cultural stereotypes that treats women primarity in the roles of wives and mothers. Futher women have been bench-marked as the Ã¢â¬Å"weaker sexÃ¢â¬ than male which might need protection from the third party. Such beliefs were used in the job market, both in public and private sector. The situation In the past practice of government, for example, Anson Chan(Post Chief Secretary for Administration) had employed with a lower salary than male civil servant in the same position. It is because she is not a man and did not count on her ability to work. The other example is Bank of China group did not ever have a female as a CEO position which also is another kind of in-direct sex discrimination. Form Hong Kong already had Sex Discrimination Ordinance which passed in 1995. Discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status and pregnancy and sexual harassment are make to unlawful under this legal law. According to SDO which both is protecting of men and women. However, There is a law does not mean that sex discrimination is non-extistent. Employers still can get full control of the employment because they will not disclose the truth to the candidates due to the gender issue, like the secretary post is always a woman. In fact, the other kind of in-direct discrimination because some think woman will soon leave the osition to a house-wives or woman will get pregnancy, so that some of employers are not willing to promote a female as a top management to save the parental leave. The other common Sex discrimination is sexual harassment in workplace. Sexual harassmentÃ isÃ intimidation,Ã bullyingÃ orÃ coercionÃ of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors. Surely sexual harassment is illegal. Harassment can include Ã¢â¬Å"sexual harassmentÃ¢â¬ or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature. In many listed companies, most of staffs are male and always claim that woman is even cheap or criticize woman who is not wise enough.. In my workplace often would happen such issue. I have heard my boss saidÃ¢â¬ Secretary should be a virginÃ¢â¬ and I will make a promotion or raise salary only base on her appearance and good shape of body. This is a sexual harassment cannot easily valid. The other example is a LegislativeÃ Councillor Mr Kam Nai Wai was suspected sexual harassment to a female assistant and also had fired her eventually. And this case even cannot make a charge at first stage. So that a lot of things cannot be protected by law. Limitations Sex discrimination not only will affect the economic growth but also will harm the organization image. First, human capital is a key source of a company if cannot let the capable people to the right position that would decrease the human capital. Corporate image also is another huge resource that goodwill can make the brand name growth. It is remind that enterprises do not under-estimate the consequence of sex discrimination because once involves on a lawsuit can be a huge loss. Recommendation Sex discrimination should be a key issue of an organization and should imply to all work force to obey. Many of organizations can gain form avoiding sex discrimination, like some international business, HSBC, Cheung Kong Holdings Limited It will definitely increase the productively and should put a effort like training program and re-enforcement on daily operation. Information form Hong Kong Labour department, there is still uneven distribution on job nature and income of male and female in 2010 as below: Leading Occupations for Women, in 2010 | |Occupation |Total Employed (Men and Women)|Percent Women |Ratio of WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Earnings to MenÃ¢â¬â¢s | | | | |Earnings | |source:Ã HK. Labor department, WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau, 20 Leading Occupations of Employed Women, 2010 | |Managers and administrators |8,018 |31. 0 |65. | |Secretaries |2,404 |98. 9 |N. A. | |Cashiers |2,974 |77. 9 |89. 4 | |Registered nurses |2,162 |93. 1 |88. 9 | |Sales supervisors and proprietors | 4,836 |43. 3 |71. 5 | |Nursing aides, orderlies, and |2,081 |91. |90. 1 | |attendants | | | | |Elementary school teachers |2,216 |82. 5 |94. 9 | |Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing |1,621 |932 |93. 7 | |clerks | | | | Conclusion Although there is a big improvement in female employment, some of industries still focus in male or female work force only. Towards to Twenty-one century, there should be more and more equal job opportunities to both gender and also need to decrease the chance of sex harassment. Finally, people in Hong Kong will gain form the revolution. Bibliography Why market donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop discrimination by Cass R Sunstein HK Labour department information 2010 by GOVHK Sex discrimination ordinance by Equal Opportunities Commission Sex harassment by Wikipedia Total word(1050 words) How to cite Sex Discrimination Is Non-Existentin the Workplace in Hong Kong, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Male Circumcision: A Social and Medical Misconcept Essay ionUniversity of Johns HopkinsIntroductionMale circumcision is defined as a surgical procedure in which the prepuceof the penis is separated from the glands and excised. (Mosby, 1986) Dating asfar back as 2800 BC, circumcision has been performed as a part of religiousceremony, as a puberty or premarital rite, as a disciplinary measure, as areprieve against the toxic effects of vaginal blood, and as a mark of slavery. (Milos Macris, 1992) In the United States, advocacy of circumcision wasperpetuated amid the Victorian belief that circumcision served as a remedyagainst the ills of masturbation and systemic disease. (Lund, 1990) Thescientific community further reinforced these beliefs by reporting the incidenceof hygiene-related urogenital disorders to be higher in uncircumcised men. Circumcision is now a societal norm in the United States. Routinecircumcision is the most widely practiced pediatric surgery and an estimated oneto one-and-a-half million newborns, or 80 to 90 percent of the population, arecircumcised. (Lund, 1990) Despite these statistics, circumcision still remains atopic of great debate. The medical community is examining the need for asurgical procedure that is historically based on religious and cultural doctrineand not of medical necessity. Possible complications of circumcision includehemorrhage, infection, surgical trauma, and pain. (Gelbaum, 1992) Unlessabsolute medical indications exist, why should male infants be exposed to theserisks? In essence, our society has perpetuated an unnecessary surgical procedurethat permanently alters a normal, healthy body part. This paper examines the literature surrounding the debate over circumcision,delineates the flaws that exist in the research, and discusses the nurses rolein the circumcision debate. Review of LiteratureMany studies performed worldwide suggest a relationship between lack ofcircumcision and urinary tract infection (UTI). In 1982, Ginsberg and McCrackendescribed a case series of infants five days to eight months of age hospitalizedwith UTI. (Thompson, 1990) Of the total infant population hospitalized with UTI,sixty-two were males and only three were circumcised. (Thompson, 1990) Based onthis information, the researchers speculated that, the uncircumcised male hasan increased susceptibility to UTI. Subsequently, Wiswell and associates fromBrooke Army Hospital released a series of papers based upon a retrospectivecohort study design of children hospitalized with UTI in the first year of life. The authors conclusions suggest a 10 to 20-fold increase in risk for UTI in theuncircumcised male in the first year of life. (Thompson, 1990) However, Thompson(1990) reports that in these studies analysis of the data was very crude andthere were no controls for the variables of age, race, education level, orincome. The statistical findings from further studies are equally misconstruing. In 1986, Wiswell and Roscelli reported an increase in the number of UTIs as thecircumcision rate declined. By clearly leaving out aberrant data, the resultsof the study are again very misleading. In 1989, Herzog from Boston ChildrensHospital reported on a retrospective case-control study on the relationshipbetween the incidence of UTI and circumcision in the male infant under one yearof age. Here too, the results were not adjusted to account for the variables ofage, ethnicity, and drop-out rate of the participants. It is obvious that thisresearch is statistically weak and should not be the criteria on which to decidefor or against neonatal circumcision. Lund (1990) reports that a study conducted by Parker and associatesestimates the relative risk of uncircumcised males to be double that ofcircumcised males for acquiring herpes genitalis, candidiasis, gonorrhea, andsyphilis. Simonsen and coworkers performed a case-control study on 340 men inKenya, Africa in an attempt to explain the different pattern for acquired immunedeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus in Africa as compared to the United States. The Connectio Between Animal Cruelty And Human Violence EssaySummary In summary, there is no statistical evidence in the literature thatcircumcision is directly related to a decrease in urinary tract infection,sexually transmitted disease, or AIDS in this country. There is evidence thatcircumcision evokes a pain response and carries the post-operative risks ofinfection, trauma, and disformity. Although circumcision is highly performedwithin our medical community, it still cannot be recommended without undeniableproof of benefit to the patient. According to the ANA, it is the nursesresponsibility to read the literature, obtain the facts, and share theirknowledge with patients and colleagues. ConclusionCircumcision evolved out of a cultural and religious ritual and has beenmaintained over the decades despite the risks associated with this nonessential,surgical procedure. The current literature does not reveal a need forcircumcision in the neonate. However, circumcision in the male neonate willcontinue to be a topic of wide debate until the risks can be shown, without adoubt, to outweigh the benefits. Circumcision has truly become a social norm inour country that the medical community attempts to justify with weak andinaccurate research. According to the ANA, it is not the role of the nurse to decide for theparent on the need for circumcision in the infant. Rather, it is the nursesrole to present all of the information in an unbiased manner and remain anadvocate of the rights of the patient. Nurses need to realistically analyze thedata available and decide if they truly are an advocate, or are merely followingin the steps of their colleagues. ReferencesAmerican Nurses Association (1991). Standards of clinical nursing practice. Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Association. Gelbaum, I. (1992). Circumcision to educate not indoctrinate-a mandate for certified nurse-midwives. Journal of Nurse-Category: Science
Friday, November 29, 2019
Valedictory Speech Paper We studied in Great Mercy Academy so we could be equipped with adequate knowledge and skills in preparation for important roles we have to play in society someday, and most specially, to turn into reality the prophecy of our national hero, that we, indeed can be the hope of our beloved country, The Philippines. Now, I could simply say that we are empowered and productive student that could face new challenges towards new horizon. For I believe, that we are now equipped of all the things we need based from the experiences and trainings we had undergone from our Alma Mater. My dear co-graduates, the first step has men successful. Aka nag, the roots of education is bitter, but the fruit it bears IS very sweet. The journey is long and laden with thorns but our accomplishments in this school are very rewarding. The patience and dedication each of us has shown throughout our 6 years in the elementary are those what made us heroes like Jose Racial. Our graduation today is the first of the series of accomplishments that we will surely achieve with the guidance of our parents and people around us. Everything in this world has a beginning. In our case, we have just accomplished the beginning. We have started the first right move. Hence, there is no reason why we should fail in our future undertakings. Of course, we will not have been able to reach this stage without the people who helped us and who, without any reservations and expecting nothing in return, guided us in our quest for knowledge. To them, we owe a lot of gratitude. No amount of words can fully express how much we appreciate what they have done for us. We just hope that we will be able to compensate for all their sacrifices. To our dear teachers who taught us not only the lesson in the book but also taught us lessons in real life, we are most thankful to Mrs.. We will write a custom essay sample on Valedictory Speech specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Valedictory Speech specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Valedictory Speech specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Angelina Leafy, our adviser who is very supportive to us; Mr.. Keen Garcia who molded our hidden talents into reality, especially in dancing; Ms. Jocosely Descartes, our Home Ionics teacher who taught us the basics of home life; Ms. Connie Jimenez, our Science and MARE teacher who supported us since we were grade 5 until our graduation today; Mrs.. Emily Castro, our Filipino teacher who guided us in our studies and to Ms. Lira Christie Omaha, the lovely teacher of Naps. We are very thankful to all of you. To our parents, who are always beside us since our first day in school, w share with you our first taste of victory. There will be more years of struggle. But we are confident that we will triumph because we have parents like you. We cannot give financial or material things at this point. We can only give you the joy, happiness, and respect that you deserve. Thank you for being responsible parents to us. We shall not be here in this worlds without you. We know the sacrifices you made just to send to send us to school. To this, we are very grateful. To papa and Mama, Tatty. Anovel, mommy, please raise. I have witnessed your sacrifices and struggles in rearing me. Thank you very much. High school life is the first step in our ladder of success. We do not know what will happen next. But if we have an aim, a goal, it will make our dreams come true.
Monday, November 25, 2019
The Life of Abagail Williams essays Hi, my name is Abagail Williams. You have probably heard of me from the Salem Witch Trials. I was twelve years old when the out break of witchcraft terrified the residents living in the town of Salem, Massachusetts. Hundreds of people were accused, the majority forced to deteriorate in jail while their cases were studied and considered for trial. Accused witches were forced to confess to witchcraft, under the fear that if they did not, they would be executed. The trials were usually brutal and unfair with the doctrine, the charged were guilty before proven innocent, and the only option for their survival was to confess and name their charge. In reality, there never were any real witches in Salem, it all began with the lies and stories I told. You might ask yourself Why did this travesty of justice occur? Salem was the prime spot for an event of this capacity. The unfortunate combination of economic conditions, congregational strife, teenage boredom, and personal jealousies account for the spiraling accusations, trials, and executions that occurred in the spring and summer of 1692. The Salem Witch Trials was a dark time in American History. Neighbors became suspicious of one another. The testimonies of myself and other children put many to death. Many were brutally tortured until they confessed or died. It all started when Tituba, a slave of my uncles began secretly to tell the local girls (including Betty and myself) stories about evil curses and mysterious voodoo from her homeland. My cousin Betty, and I became restless. Betty complained of a burning fever, dashed noisily about the house, contorted of pain, and dove under furniture. I, however, was afflicted in a completely different method: I went into trance like states from which I could not (or would not) be awakened and went into fits that closely resembled epileptic seizures. ...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Characteristics and Features of E. Coli gastroenteritis - Research Paper Example From this research it is clear that most of the participants with E. Coli gastroenteritis presented similar symptoms associating them with the disease. For instance, there were increased cases of diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramp and bloody stools(Qadri, et al. 2005). Other participants reported having dry mouth and dry skin. The presence of dry mouth among patients with gastroenteritis resulted from a high rate of dehydration associated with increased vomiting and diarrhea(Bielaszewska, et al. 2011). Also, children exposed to conditions that compromise their health status were at a higher risk to be infected with E. Coli. For instance, children who frequent open fields that have poor hygiene were at a higher risk of being infected as well as those who have suffered from malnutrition. E. Coli bacteria are the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Although the presence of the bacteria in humans does not always prove to be harmful, there are other strains of E. Coli that been prov ed to cause gastroenteritis. Both the harmless and harmful E. Coli bacteria are found in the human gut. Infection of the gut due to E. Coli bacteria has been identified to present various signs and symptoms among the infected individuals. Most of the individuals suffering from gastroenteritis complained of diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, nausea, and dehydration. The condition is prevalent among children exposed to the low hygienic environment. E. Coli is transmitted through many ways including personal contact, drinking contaminated water.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Decision Making Process of Property Crime Offenders - Research Proposal Example All social behaviors occur through a process of decision making, so does criminality. As seen earlier on the decision-making process is cognitive, and as odd as it may seem even criminal offenders go through the process of decision making. It isÃ a continuous process based on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with the environment that ends when an acceptable or suitable solution is reached. The main motivation of criminology is the avoidance of pain and pursuit of pleasure. Property crimes have a greater percentage of all crimes that happen. If there is an intention to commit a crime, this is burglary. If none such breaking and entering into a place alone called illegal trespass of property. (Nee.C, 2003) Academic and policy-driven interest in situational crime prevention has stimulated a variety of offenses-specific research from the 1980s onwards. This has resulted in considerable development in both Ã¢â¬ËgroundedÃ¢â¬â¢ methodological approaches and our understanding of the burglarÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and decision-making during the criminal event (Nee, 2003). It is of great importance to master the psychology of the person who commits the crime. Find out why, how and for what reason. It is also important to find out the various phases that the criminal offender goes through during different stages of the offense.
Monday, November 18, 2019
Why Do Small Businesses Fail Analysing the Reasons for their High Rate of Failure in the UK - Essay Example Studies show that by the third year of starting up, at least half of them close down. While there are external factors such as inadequate funding that leads to this, part of the reason is also internal - such as the work culture, the marketing being poor, the location not being right, the product being ahead or behind its times, and so on. Therefore, for an entrepreneur to succeed, it is essential that they come with not only a product/service plan but also its business plan and a back up in case the first one does not work. In the first place, there is a lot of concern that not many innovative ideas find the light of the day in the UK. According to a study commissioned by NESTA, an early stage investor in innovative and creative businesses, 80% of innovative ideas do not see the light of the day as knowledge of how to go about it, lack of funds and lack of time. However, the biggest concern was the fear of failure - what if the venture failed According to a Cambridge University's Centre for Business Research study (Fielding2, 2006) based on three surveys of more than 1,000 SMEs conducted in 1991, 1997 and 2004, SME survival rates fell from 59% to 54% over the same period. Between 1991 and 1997, 28% of the companies in the survey failed; between 1997 and 2004, that proportion rose to 32%. Among its more worrying findings, the research reveals a significant decline since 1997 in the proportion of SMEs carrying out research and development activities - from 52% to 38% - even though R&D investment is considered vital to this sector of the UK economy. Such statistics would clearly deter anyone from venturing into setting up a new business. Supporting this is the CBR finding that, since 1997, research and development activities of the small and medium enterprises fell from 52% to 38% despite it being considered important by the UK government. According to Finfacts Ireland3 website: The decline in the UK's early stage entrepreneurship rate, from 6.2 per cent to 5.8 per cent, was partly attributed to the growth in jobs in the financial services sector, where the lure of high wages was attracting many would-be entrepreneurs. According to a press release on the Small Business Service4 website: In 2005, there were 177,900 registrations and 152,900 de-registrations, resulting in an increase of 25,000 (1.4 per cent) in the stock of VAT-registered enterprises during 2005. Chapter 2 Why Start-Up The industry is already filled with businesses - large, medium and small - offering products and services right from a safety pin to aeroplane. Then why another company Is it merely the entrepreneurial spirit or is there truly something new on offer Unless the entrepreneur can truly answer this question, there may really be no point in starting a new business. For, several times, it may be the same idea in an old bottle. For instance, an idea may be approached from
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Social Media Marketing Impact on Consumer Behavior In recent times, the term social media has emerged as a catchall expression (Zarrella, 108). It is a new form of marketing that concentrates on opening new horizons for marketers in order to promote a product or service. It differs from the conventional media as it mainly emphasizes on consumer generated content rules (Zarrella, 109). It incorporates the use of wide ranging applications that are based on Internet, which are based on the Web 2.0 technology. Consumer behavior is an important aspect of marketing as it assists marketers to devise strong and robust marketing strategies and techniques. For instance, organizations launch new products or services, which are generally bought by few customers in the initial phase and gradually, there is an increase in the users. It is essential for an organization to devise a strong and robust marketing strategy that would ensure commercial success. The satisfaction of initial consumers is dependent on the marketing strategy as their satisfaction and contentment would make an impact on the subsequent brand choices of the consumers. (Kim, Fiore, and Lee, 96) Today, organizations are employing social media technique in order to change consumers behavior and to win their loyalty. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of social media marketing on consumer behavior in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources (Kim, Fiore, and Lee, 97). Overview Social media marketing is the form of marketing which consists of internet based applications such as social networking sites, podcasts, blogs, microblogs, etc and have become part of the marketing strategy in order to promote a product or service, improve efficiency of the organization and to attain new customers. From research, it is evident that social media marketing has been adopted by different organization in order to target wider audience and to influence consumer behavior(Zarrella, 115). In the new era of marketing, organizations no longer depend on traditional forms of marketing in order to interact with the consumers. Similarly, consumers have power the raise their voices and opinions. The contemporary consumer can voice his or her opinion in a louder and clear manner as he or she has access to Twitter, Facebook, blogs, websites, microblogs, YouTube, etc. therefore, it has become necessary for companies to utilize social media marketing in order to change the way they conduct their business. Social media marketing plays an important and significant role in changing the buying behavior of the consumers. A study conducted by Kim, Fiore, and Lee , concentrated on studying the importance of social media marketing and its impact on consumer behavior (Kim, Fiore, and Lee, 99). The research demonstrated that more than fifty percent companies in the United States have adopted social media marketing in order to target new markets and to win new customers. The same research revealed that more than seventy percent of the users used social media in one form or another and it gave them the power and control to do things their way (Kim, Fiore, and Lee, 101). Study conducted by Chiang and Dholakia, concentrated on studying consumer behavior and social media marketing(Chiang and Dholakia, 177). For this purpose, three hundred participants were interviewed. Eighty percent of the users agreed that social media made an impact on their purchase decision. The same study revealed that users of social media are most likely to trust social media more as compared to traditional form of product advertisement and promotion (Chiang and Dholakia, 179). This clearly demonstrates that social media marketing plays an important role in influencing the purchase decisions of the users and therefore, it is important the company employs a strong and robust social media marketing strategy in order to win the loyalties of the new customers. Koufaris, Kambil, and Labarbera conducted a study, in which two hundred marketers were surveyed. Sixty percent of the marketers had employed social media marketing in order target and win new customers (Koufaris, Kambil, and Labarbera, 115). Their study demonstrated that the connection between social media marketing and consumer behavior is directly proportional (Koufaris, Kambil, and Labarbera, 120). A strong, well planned and well structured social media marketing strategy to promote a particular product or service is most likely to win the attention of the consumer. Social media marketing changes and influences the buying behavior of the consumer. The same study demonstrated that the chances of recommending a brand or product by means of social media marketing is higher as compared to traditional forms of marketing (Koufaris, Kambil, and Labarbera, 125). The study demonstrated that more than sixty percent of Facebook fans show the possibility of recommending the brand they use and more than fifty percent of the fans are most likely to buy the product. Conclusion Social media marketing is the contemporary style of marketing as it concentrates on opening new horizons for marketers in order to promote a product or service as compared to conventional media. In recent times, consumer behavior and satisfaction has become an important asset for any organization to attain its position in the market and to increase its profitability. For this purpose, organizations are employing social media technique. From research, it is evident that companies are employing social media marketing in order to interact with the consumers. Social media marketing has given organizations a new way of dealing and changing the buying behavior of the consumers. Work Cited Zarrella, Dan. The Social Media Marketing Book. OReilly Media, November 2009. Kim, Jihyun, Ann M. Fiore, and Hyun-Hwa Lee. Influences of online store perception, shopping enjoyment, and shopping involvement on consumer patronage behavior towards an online retailer. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 14 (March 2007): 95-107. Chiang, Kuan-Pin and Ruby R. Dholakia. Factors Driving Consumer Intention to Shop Online: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Consumer Psychology 13 (2003): 177-183. Koufaris, Marios, Ajit Kambil, and Priscilla A. Labarbera. Consumer Behavior
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
First Impressions about George and Lennies Relationship in Of Mice and Men :: essays research papers
Our first impressions of George are that he is fairly normal. He is quite small but still broad and strong. Ã¢â¬ËHe is small and quick with sharp strong featuresÃ¢â¬â¢. We also get the impression that he is smart as well because Ã¢â¬ËquickÃ¢â¬â¢ suggests that he is quick thinking as well as fast. He is a lot more sensible than Lennie and has a lot more self discipline. It must be very frustrating for a man with such good physical and mental health to be dragged down by a friend like he is but he is so kind and therefore he would never let Lennie get into trouble and a couple of times he even risks his life to help him out. Steinbeck makes is obvious from the first moment that Lennie is mentally retarded. Many times he is referred to as animal like and having animal like features. He is like a big baby, he is huge and clearly very strong but he has the mind of a small child. Lennie's personality and life seem based on three things: soft things, devotion to George and his dream of one day owning a farm. It is quite sad and Steinbeck makes you feel really sorry for him be exaggerating his simplicity and his innocence. Lennie is absent-minded for a good portion of the novel. He is unaware of what he's doing sometimes until he has done it. For example, he enjoyed to pet soft objects. But we find out that while living in Weed, he decided to Ã¢â¬â¢petÃ¢â¬â¢ a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s dress but she thought that he was raping her so she screamed and he almost got himself killed. He is greatly forgetful and needs a lot of looking after otherwise he would never be able so survive and quite often this can come between his relationship with George. Lennie is completely incapable of living on his own because of his disability but because George is such a good man, he has almost given up his life and devoted it to helping Lennie. He mentions that he made a promise to LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s auntie but it is also because he is such a good man and he would never let such an innocent man go just because of a disability. Their relationship is very similar to that of a parent and a child, the child (Lennie) needs the parent (George) to look after them otherwise they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to survive.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Welcome 2 ZA, welcome 2 massive poverty, obscene inequality & such horrible outbreaks of disease, murder, rape, malnutrition, suicide, HIV Aids, homelessness & scale breaking numbers of orphans. Welcome 2 the harsh reality of raging racism & the still glowing embers of slavery; the prison of poverty. Poverty defined is the deprivation of those things that determine the quality of life, including food, shelter, clothing & safe drinking water, but also intangibles such as the opportunity to learn & the respect of fellow citizens. Could you imagine living day in, day out, without any of these? Many people in ZA live without any of these things. Perhaps this is why they are only expected to live to 50. Every 10 seconds someone dies of some unquestionable reason that in our society we would find totally unacceptable. Racism is another factor which is adding 2 the instability of ZA. By its simplest definition racism is the belief that racial differences produce a clear superiority over a particular race, religion, colour, ethnic origin or group. Certain sections of society maybe denied rights or benefits, or get special treatment. Before 1994 in apartheid ZA people were classified according to the colour of their skin. The history of racism in ZA is appalling, for example in 1836 inadmissible human zoos were set up to parade the black people which they labelled Ã¢â¬Ëniggers and savages'. They were forced to do things with no clothes on and beaten to near death if they refused to do so. White skinned people thought they were of more value than a dark skinned person. They honestly believed that dark skinned peoples only use was to slave for them. When a problem occurred it was the black persons fault. Personally I feel that this frame of mind is arrogant and stupid, but also ironic. How can you call someone Ã¢â¬Ëcoloured' when black, brown and white are all colours. The apartheid was a list of restricting rules imposed upon the blacks to segregate them from white people. When it was removed individuals who had previously supported apartheid publicly apologised, including F W de Klerk. He said Ã¢â¬Å"I apologise in my capacity as leader to the millions who suffered wrenching disruption of forced removals; who suffered the shame of being arrested for no reason; who over the decades suffered the indignities and humiliation of immense racial discrimination. As expected the years and years of anger at being constantly humiliated exploded and fears that the change of power in ZA would be violent were confirmed. It was here that the song Ã¢â¬ËBeeko' was released by Peter Gabriel which repeated Ã¢â¬Ëwhen I try to sleep at night, I can only dream in red, the outside world is black and white with only one colour Ã¢â¬â dead'. All of this has supposedly passed and now according to the image the govt portrays the country is fine. I know from times out there that this wound has not completely healed. It still very much black and white in many situations. There are black schools, white schools, black shops, white shops, and black houses are of poor quality whereas white houses are of normal, even spectacular standards. I went into shanty towns where houses are made of iron, wood and rubbish. Sidney Smith said Ã¢â¬ It is the greatest of all mistakes to do nothing because you can only do a littleÃ¢â¬ . Taking out food to kids who are the same age as my cousins and younger, who are orphaned, starving and sometimes HIV positive, even dying, changes your view on the world. If they were born into our country they wouldn't have had these problems. We live in a society where people cannot see just how much they have, but also how much they take for granted. If Gov. like ours all over the developed country world gave a little money to ZA the poverty wheel would could end and the turmoil would be left behinf. Money CANNOT sort out everything. Perhaps if wealthy, stable and lawed coutries showed compassion to the younger generation of ZA who have not seen the horrors of their relatives past the world would change. This is the generation which will change Africa. KOFEEE ANNAN said Ã¢â¬Å"things get better when enough people decide they should. Things change when countries come together in a common purposeÃ¢â¬ The time to act is NOW. There are many things that could b done 2 correct the injustice. There are things even you and me can do. To quote HILLELL Ã¢â¬Å"If now is not the time to act, when will it bÃ¢â¬
Saturday, November 9, 2019
I am deeply interested in why Black women are received and portrayed as both Ã¢â¬Å"angryÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ Black Women. It may seem inexplicable that a respected black woman educator would stamp her foot, jab her finger in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s face and scream while trying to make a point on national television, thereby reconfirming the notation that black women are irrationally angry. When confronted about race and gender, as a black woman I stand in a crooked room. I have to figure out which way is up. Bombarded with warping images of humanity, I sometimes tilt and bend to fit the distortion.From the single mother who complains about child support to the first lady of the United States, it seems like Black women of all ages and classes have been accused of either being Ã¢â¬Å"angryÃ¢â¬ or too Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ at some point in life. For centuries, the angry black female has been a pervasive stereotype in the United States. You may have heard the term Ã¢â¬Å"Angry Bl ack Woman Syndrome (ABSW)Ã¢â¬ . Angry Black Woman Syndrome is not only the dynamics between black woman and black men. It is definitively not an official clinical diagnosis or anything.The attitudes behavior of some black women, by some can best be described as a word that starts with Ã¢â¬Å"bÃ¢â¬ and rhymes with the word Ã¢â¬Å"itchÃ¢â¬ . Angry Black Woman is just as inescapable today as it was during the slave era. Melissa Harris-Perry, suggests that anger is still one of the most ubiquitous stereotypes faced by black women in modern society. In a recent Super Bowl commercial, Pepsi was criticized for perpetuating this negative perception by depicting a black woman kicking, shoving and punishing her husband for cheating on his diet.AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s first lady had to address the stereotype: In a recent television interview on CBS, Michelle Obama denied the Ã¢â¬Å"angry black womanÃ¢â¬ depiction of herself that emerged in some coverage following the release of The ObamaÃ¢â ¬â¢s, a book by Jodi Kantor. Mrs. Obama defended herself by saying instead that she is Ã¢â¬Å"merely a Ã¢â¬ËstrongÃ¢â¬â¢ womanÃ¢â¬ . By calling herself Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ is she somehow trying to overcompensate for feelings of shame? Although many may think that the Angry Black Woman is a white supremacist myth, they are wrong.In fact, it is a regularly revived and recreated perception in the Black community. The anger black women have is something that ignites strong feelings among black women. The idea of the angry woman is particularly recreated by African-American men who have an interest in displaying Black woman as emasculating or overbearing or angry as a means of basically controlling. Preconceived ideas of black women as dominant and assertive may hurt when it comes to romantic relationships.Yes, there are black women that need to seriously check themselves Ã¢â¬â particularly black women who think it is cute to be bitter, argumentative, man-hating, and generall y feels angry. She is that woman that frowns or rolls her eyes when smiled at, brands all men as being Ã¢â¬Å"dogsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"no goodÃ¢â¬ and she is that woman that thinks it is necessary to curse out another female if she bumps into her in the store even after she has received a sincere apology. It is unfortunate that black women have attitudes and behaviors like this.It is this type of female that sometimes gets acknowledged as the representative for all black women. At the end of the day, the vast majority of black females do not suffer from Angry Black Women Syndrome. If you ask for what you want need or what you want, you are just an angry Black woman. If you do not ask for what you need and try to do everything on your own, however, you could then be labeled as a Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ Black woman Ã¢â¬â a term that may sound like a compliment, but in reality contributes to a derogatory ideal that holds Black women back from progression.When black women respond to rac ism they are responding with anger; the anger of exclusion, of unquestioned privilege of racial distortions, of silence ill-use, stereotyping, defensiveness, misnaming, and of betrayal. Black women may have a well-stocked arsenal of anger potentially useful against those oppressions, personal and institutional, which brought that anger into being. Focused with precision it can become a powerful source of energy serving progress and change. Ã¢â¬âAudre Lorde, Ã¢â¬Å"The Uses of Anger: Women Responding to RacismÃ¢â¬ (1981).The emotion which accompanies the first steps toward liberation is, for most women, anger. Through the exercise strength may be gained. As a black woman I envisioned a new America in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, anger may have been a vital political tool. I was provided new perspectives, new understandings of oppressive conditions that had previously remained unquestioned. I was introduced to my anger through relationships, through individual and collective political con sciousness; because the angry black women had been theorized.Attention seemed to have been drawn to the anger of black women; it exposed knowledge that had been buried and speech that had been silenced. Anger was a link to previous suppressed histories, and a revolutionary coalition. I couldn't believeÃ¢â¬âstill can'tÃ¢â¬âhow angry I can become, from deep down and way back, it sometimes feels like a five-thousand-years of buried anger. Every black woman in America lives her life somewhere along a wide curve of ancient and unexpressed angers, Audre Lorde observed. Only when women are able to feel anger, and then recognize, accept, and direct it towards the real enemy can an association occur.If black women can identify their sources of anger and analyze why they use it is a form of expression. Their anger may then be used as a paradigm for understanding the ways in which black women, at different historical moments, have responded to myriad forms of oppression. Even though, the re is this long-lasting and unfair stereotype it is typically seen as a negative one, standing for abrasive brash and even ill-tempered, it is also consistent with qualities that is often associated with leadership, such as being decisive, aggressive and resolute.In a recent study conducted by Robert Livingston and Ella Washington of Northwestern UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Kellogg School of Management, it was found that black women leaders who displayed dominant behavior when interacting with subordinates got more favorable reviews than their white female or black male counterparts who behaved the same way. In fact black women were evaluated comparable to white male leaders who display similarly dominant assertive behavior. Black people are proud; African Americans feel a sense of kinship with other Blacks with whom they can take pride in the accomplishments.The other side of racial pride is the underlying feeling of shame. Because we feel pride, about accomplishments of Blacks not related , we can also feel ashamed for failure, transgressions and misbehaviors. The Ã¢â¬ËstrongÃ¢â¬â¢ Black womanÃ¢â¬â¢ is a negative image of Black women. Black women are super-strong, hyper-competent; we do not have that many individual needs, we really can take care of others, and we can handle business. Despite the Ã¢â¬Å"angryÃ¢â¬ figure that some may try to replace with a Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ image, Black women are not superhuman. We are not universally strong; we do sometimes feel weak and need help.Whether being labeled angry or strong, the biggest danger as a Black woman is when I began to think the labels were accurate, and began calling myself a Ã¢â¬Å"strongÃ¢â¬ Black woman. My goal is to recognize that labels are false. They are not indicative to who I am. I may be angry but I am not inherently angry. I am angry about something. So my anger has a meaning. It is not a personality trait. I may be strong enough to make it through difficult circumstances, but that is n ot because I have an inherent inborn capacity for strength Ã¢â¬â it is because I have very few other options except to be strong or be destroyed.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Biography of Annie Jump Cannon, Classifier of Stars Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863Ã¢â¬âApril 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose work in star cataloging led to the development of modern star classification systems. Along with her groundbreaking work in astronomy, Cannon was a suffragist and activist for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Fast Facts: Annie Jump Cannon Known For: American astronomer who created the modern star classification system and broke ground for women in astronomyBorn: December 11, 1863 in Dover, DelawareDied: April 13, 1941 in Cambridge, MassachusettsSelected Honors: Honorary doctorates from University of Groningen (1921) and Oxford University (1925), Henry Draper Medal (1931), Ellen Richards Prize (1932), National Womens Hall of Fame (1994)Notable Quote: Teaching man his relatively small sphere in the creation, it also encourages him by its lessons of the unity of Nature and shows him that his power of comprehension allies him with the great intelligence over-reaching all. Early Life Annie Jump Cannon was the eldest of three daughters born to Wilson Cannon and his wife Mary (neÃ ¨ Jump). Wilson Cannon was a state senator in Delaware, as well as a ship builder. It was Mary who encouraged AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s education from the very start, teaching her the constellations and encouraging her to pursue her interests in science and math. Throughout AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, mother and daughter stargazed together, using old textbooks to identify and map out the stars they could see from their own attic. Sometime during her childhood or young adulthood, Annie suffered major hearing loss, possibly due to scarlet fever. Some historians believe she was hard of hearing from childhood onward, while others suggest that she was already a young adult in her post-college years when she lost her hearing. Her hearing loss reportedly made it difficult for her to socialize, so Annie immersed herself more completely in her work. She never married, had children, or had publicly known romantic attachments. Annie attended Wilmington Conference Academy (known today as Wesley College) and excelled, particularly in math. In 1880, she began studying as Wellesley College, one of the best American colleges for women, where she studied astronomy and physics. She graduated as valedictorian in 1884, then returned home to Delaware. Teacher, Assistant, Astronomer In 1894, Annie Jump Cannon suffered a major loss when her mother Mary died. With home life in Delaware becoming more difficult, Annie wrote to her former professor at Wellesley, the physicist and astronomer Sarah Frances Whiting, to ask if she had any job openings. Whiting obliged and hired her as a junior-level physics teacher- which also enabled Annie to continue her education, taking graduate-level courses in physics, spectroscopy, and astronomy. To continue pursuing her interests, Annie needed access to a better telescope, so she enrolled at Radcliffe College, which had a special arrangement with nearby Harvard to have professors give their lectures both at Harvard and Radcliffe. Annie gained access to the Harvard Observatory, and in 1896, she was hired by its director, Edward C. Pickering, as an assistant. Pickering hired several women to assist him on his major project: completing the Henry Draper Catalogue, an extensive catalogue with the goal of mapping and defining every star in the sky (up to a photographic magnitude of 9). Funded by Anna Draper, Henry DraperÃ¢â¬â¢s widow, the project took up significant manpower and resources. Creating a Classification System Soon into the project, a disagreement arose over how to classify the stars they were observing. One woman on the project, Antonia Maury (who was DraperÃ¢â¬â¢s niece) argued for a complex system, while another colleague, Williamina Fleming (who was PickeringÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen supervisor) wanted a simple system. It was Annie Jump Cannon who figured out a third system as a compromise. She divided stars into the spectral classes O, B, A, F, G, K, M- a system which is still taught to astronomy students today. AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s first catalog of stellar spectra was published in 1901, and her career accelerated from that point on. She received a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in 1907 from Wellesley College, completing her studies from years earlier. In 1911, she became the Curator of Astronomical Photographs at Harvard, and three years later, she became an honorary member of the Royal Astronomical Society in the U.K. Despite these honors, Annie and her female colleagues were often criticized for working, rather than being housewives, and were often underpaid for long hours and tedious work. Regardless of criticism, Annie persisted, and her career flourished. In 1921, she was among the first women to receive an honorary doctorate from a European university when the Dutch university Groningen University awarded her an honorary degree in math and astronomy. Four years later, she was awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford Ã¢â¬â making her the first woman to receive an honorary doctorate of science from the elite university. Annie also joined the suffragist movement, advocating for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and, specifically, the extension of the right to vote; the right to vote for all women was finally won in 1928, eight years after the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s work was noted for being incredibly rapid and accurate. At her peak, she could classify 3 stars per minute, and she classified around 350,000 over the course of her career. She also discovered 300 variable stars, five novas, and one spectroscopic binary star. In 1922, the International Astronomical Union officially adopted Cannons stellar classification system; it is still used, with only minor changes, to this day. In addition to her work on classifications, she served as a sort of ambassador within the astronomy field, helping forge partnerships among colleagues. She assumed a similar role for the astronomy fieldÃ¢â¬â¢s public-facing work: she wrote books presenting astronomy for public consumption, and she represented professional women at the 1933 WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Fair. Retirement and Later Life Annie Jump Cannon was named the William C. Bond Astronomer at Harvard University in 1938. She remained in that position before retiring in 1940 at the age of 76. Despite being officially retired, however, Annie continued to work in the observatory. In 1935, she created the Annie J. Cannon Prize to honor womenÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to the field of astronomy. She continued to help women gain a foothold and gain respect in the scientific community, leading by example while also lifting up the work of fellow women in science. AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s work was continued by some of her colleagues. Most notably, the famous astronomer Cecilia Payne was one of AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s collaborators, and she used some of AnnieÃ¢â¬â¢s data to support her groundbreaking work that determined that stars are composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. Annie Jump Cannon died on April 13, 1941. Her death came after a long illness and hospitalization. In honor of her countless contributions to astronomy, the American Astronomical Society presents an annual award named for her- the Annie Jump Cannon Award- to female astronomers whose work has been especially distinguished. Sources Des Jardins, Julie.Ã The Madame Curie Complex- The Hidden History of Women in Science. New York: Feminist Press, 2010.Mack, Pamela (1990).Ã Straying from their orbits: Women in astronomy in America. In Kass-Simon, G.; Farnes, Patricia; Nash, Deborah.Ã Women of Science: Righting the Record. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.Sobel, Dava.Ã The Glass Universe: How the Ladies of the Harvard Observatory Took the Measure of the Stars. Penguin: 2016.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Horror Exam - Essay Example This ever-ubiquitous element of the Gothic style, is represented here by Vincent PriceÃ¢â¬â¢s characters and the women in the movie. Price played the dual character of the warlock Joseph Curwen who was burn at stake by the villagers of Arkham and the warlockÃ¢â¬â¢s descendant Charles Dexter Ward who came to Arkham some 110 years later to take possession of CurwenÃ¢â¬â¢s castle which he inherited. As a warlock, Curwen can put a spell on any woman he desires to offer them as sacrifice to a creature he kept in his basement. His beautiful mistress Hester loyally assisted him in the sacrificial rites. HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s submissive, unquestioning and devoted loyalty to Curwen provides a stark contrast to CurwenÃ¢â¬â¢s dark, overpowering and totally evil aura. Similarly, the pretty young women Curwen inveigles to his castle to be made sacrificial lambs were made docile and almost lifeless by the hypnotic spell he cast upon them. In the second part of the film, the same character dynamic of the dominant male and submissive female is re-presented to the audience. Charles Dexter Ward, CurwenÃ¢â¬â¢s descendant comes to Arkham to take possession of his inheritance Ã¢â¬â CurwenÃ¢â¬â¢s castle. Without WardÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, this event had been intentionally designed by CurwenÃ¢â¬â¢s two henchmen who wanted Curwen to possess the body of Ward, so that they could pursue their demonic plans of opening the door to the beyond and commune with the dark gods. Ward is accompanied by his young wife, the pretty Ann Ward. WardÃ¢â¬â¢s character, although not dominating and commanding initially, changes once the warlock starts to take over his body, changing him into an evil, powerful and domineering character who pushed around the fragile, too-feminine and helpless Ann. Once again, the exaggerated masculinity of PriceÃ¢â¬â¢s character provides a stark contrast to the likewise exaggerated femininity of Debra Page tÃ¢â¬â¢s Ann, who
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Valuing Bonds - Essay Example The call provision feature allows bond issuers to pay off the remaining debt early before the maturity date. The role of the borrower is to make a lump sum payment derived from a formula based on the net present value (NPV) of future coupon payments thatÃ will not be paid because of the call. The call provision right is usually exercised at times of low interest rates and it allows the bond holder to retire what is currently a high interest debt and reissue it at a lower interest rate. Call provisions limit a bonds potential price appreciation because when interest rates fall, the price of a callable bond will not go any higher than its call price. Thus, the true yield of a callable bond at any given price is usually lower than its yield to maturity. A discount bond is a bond issued at a price lower than its par value is a bond currently trading at less than its par value in the secondary market. An example is a $4,000,000, 9%, 5-year bond with par value of $1000 issued at $970. A premium bond is a bond issued at a price higher than its par value is a bond currently trading at more than its par value in the secondary market. An example is a $4,000,000, 9%, 5-year bond with par value of $100 issued at $105. For a 5% bond, interest is paid is calculated at the interest rate on the par value of bond and is paid periodically (annually or semi-annually) while for a zero coupon bond, no periodic interest payments are made. When the bond reaches maturity, its investor receives its par (or face) value. "Calculate the price of a $1,000 (FV) zero coupon bond that matures in 20 years if the market interest rate is 6.5 percent." (Cornett, Adair, and Nofsinger, 2012, p. 147). Assume semi-annual compounding. 4. "Compute the price of a $1,000 (FV) 4.5 percent coupon bond with 15 years left to maturity and a market interest rate of 6.8 percent." (Cornett, Adair, and Nofsinger, 2012, p. 148). Assume interest payments are paid semi-annually,
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Readings In Social Science - Essay Example Through adapting these works toward the social commentary of the day, we find that in the same article of work by The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy is that Ã¢â¬Å"Mill's defense of the view that we ought to pursue happiness because we do pursue happiness, has been the object of savage attack by, among others, F. H. Bradley in his Ethical Studies 1874 and G. E. Moore in Principia Ethica 1903.Ã¢â¬ This would be aptly served by the situation of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s social policies in that it seems quite apparent in how his insight many years ago would have been a service to those governing today. Ã¢â¬Å"But others have argued that on this particular point, Mill was misinterpreted by his critics. His insistence that happiness was to be assessed not merely by quantity but by quality - the doctrine that a dissatisfied Socrates is not only better than a satisfied fool but somehow happier, too - has puzzled generations of commentatorsÃ¢â¬ (Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy). Taking the abo ve statement into consideration, it would be evident that the social system of governance that is clearly applicable today has been influenced partly in what Mill parlayed in his writings. It is a mandate of the social reformists to make society economically grounded through necessity and not indulgence. Adding to the fears of the time and how America was starting to engage in over-indulgences brought on by the industrial revolution, Ã¢â¬Å"Mill feared that it was also a society that cared nothing for individual liberty.Ã¢â¬ ... Adding to the fears of the time and how America was starting to engage in over-indulgences brought on by the industrial revolution, "Mill feared that it was also a society that cared nothing for individual liberty." (Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy). This thinking would lead to a lack of "civil liberties" as Mill quoted in his writings On Liberty written in 1859. Through the lack of civil liberties "Mill lays down "one very simple principle" to govern the use of coercion in society - and by coercion he means both legal penalties and the operation of public opinion" (Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy) and through this analogy Mill points out that society needs to follow the utilitarian viewpoint on self-discretion and self-denial. Utilitarianism and Its Impact Utilitarianism is defined by the Bentham ideology a "a moral theory according to which an action is right if and only if it conforms to the principle of utility." (Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy) This basically means that an action is only correct in its definition if it relates to the consequences of that action. It is perceived that happiness of self applies to the welfare of self and utilitarian law implicates that happiness equates to the welfare of those best affected. The application of the word utilitarianism has been replaced by consequentialism by devotees of the movement. Mill's Theories of Influence It is apparent early philosophers had a great deal of influence over Mill and his social rhetoric on his viewpoints about social reform, but, there are those who have been guided by Mill themselves which include such individuals as: John Rawls, Robert Nozick, Karl Popper, Ronald Dworkin, H.L.A. Hart, Peter Singer. One such individual, John Rawls, was such a profound philosopher with respect
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Themes in Romeo and Juliet Essay The story of Romeo and Juliet continues to interest and engage viewers and readers to the present day. One of the reasons for this may be that it explores universal themes which are still of interest and concern to everyday people. The play makes us think about issues, such as love, loyalty to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family and friends, authority, and fate. Each of these themes is discussed below in relation to the play. Loyalty Romeo and Juliet contains many examples of loyalty of one person or group to another person or group. Loyal actions in the play do not always have positive results and cannot always be seen to have been the best course of action. At times, as we see in the opening of the play, loyalty can lead to violence and people behaving dishonestly or wrongly. Student Tasks 1. In your groups, discuss and decide on a definition of loyalty. In your answer consider the following: What is loyalty and how does a loyal person behave? Where does loyalty start and stop? 2. Think of at least three examples of when a person or group shows loyalty in Romeo and Juliet. Write down: a. Who was loyal to whom? b. How they were loyalÃ¢â¬âwhat did they do that showed loyalty? c. What the result of their actionsÃ¢â¬âdid their loyalty have positive or negative outcomes in the end? 3. Using the scenes of Romeo and Juliet that we have studied in class, find three quotations that show that a character is feeling torn or pulled in two directions by their loyalties. Write down the quotation and explain what it shows about the character and to whom they are loyal. Authority Authority is illustrated and explored in Romeo and Juliet. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time, authority was very closely linked in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds to the naturalÃ order of the world and to the will of God. For example, the authority of the king or queen was believed to be given to them by God. Therefore, anyone who went against the authority of the king or queen would be considered to be committing a crime or sin against the wishes of God. People who went against authority were seen as going against the natural order and many people believed that this could only end in disaster. Student Tasks 4. There are many other words related to the word Ã¢â¬ËauthorityÃ¢â¬â¢. For example: authoritarian, authorize, authoritative. Look up each of these words and find out what form of word that they are, for example, noun, adjective, adverb. Write a brief definition for each of the words including the word Ã¢â¬ËauthorityÃ¢â¬â¢. 5. Find and write down three examples from the play where one person or group has authority over another group. 6. Describe three situations in the play when a person or group disobeys authority. What is the end result in each situation? Which of these examples of disobedience are the most serious ones in your opinion? 7. Are there any situations in Romeo and Juliet where people in authority do not do their jobs properly? For example, do the people in authority always carry out their jobs as carefully and as well as they should? 8. What message or idea do you think Shakespeare might have wanted to say in Romeo and Juliet about the nature of authority and about obeying authority? Love Love in Romeo and Juliet is presented almost as a disease that makes you physically ill and that makes you behave in a foolish way. Student Tasks 9. Read the two statements about the theme of love in Romeo and Juliet. AsÃ a group, choose the statement that you agree with more and find quotations and examples from the play to support your opinion. Be prepared to contribute your ideas to a class discussion. a. Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬ is one of the greatest love stories of all times.Ã¢â¬ b. Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬ is more about passion, hate, and the importance of obedience than it is about love.Ã¢â¬ Fate versus free will In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time, fate was seen as your personal fortune or destiny that was predetermined by God. You could escape or avoid it. Your fate was said to be aligned with the stars (that is why astrologers have such importance for some people). On the other hand, there is free will. This is where a person takes control and makes his or her own destiny thereby changing the will of God. This was seen as a sin. Student Tasks 10. Write down three examples of fate or free will from Romeo and Juliet. 11. What message was Shakespeare trying to convey about fate and free will?
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The Ancient Concept Of Diplomatic Immunity And Relations Across Borders Law Essay INTRODUCTION Diplomatic immunity is considered as an ancient concept concerning relations across borders. It even dates back to Ancient Greece and Rome. Today, it is a principle that has been codified into the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961 and this regulates past customs and practices. Indeed, as the ICJ indicated in US v. IranÃ Ã , a large number of the provisions of the Convention reflect customary international law. Moreover, it was found that almost all disputes relating to diplomatic law could be resolved by referring to the Convention or the obligations contained in it. The term Diplomatic immunity and privileges connotes a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments. This aims at ensuring thatÃ diplomatsÃ are safe in the host State and that they are not liable toÃ lawsuitÃ orÃ prosecutionÃ under the laws of the receiving State. It is noteworthy to state that there is a distinction between an immunity and a privilege but these are known to have been used interchangeablyÃ Ã . Various authors like Morton, Stefko and Makowski have tried to distinguish between the meanings. Although each of them described the terms in his own words, they basically have a common denominator. Privileges can be defined as benefits or rights that other persons do not have while Immunities can be considered as exemptions from the jurisdiction of the law of the receiving State.Ã Ã The traditional tasks of the diplomats can be summarised as follows: analytical assessment of the receiving State, protection of citizens of the sending State who are present in the host State and relation building between the two States. However, today, diplomats also deal with issues such as the promotion of trade, peacemaking, environmental concerns, nuclear weapons and drug abuse across borders amongst others. According to Brownlie, diplomacy exists to create and maintain communication between States so that objectives regarding commercial, political and legal activities can be pursued.Ã Ã It can be argued that, today, instantaneous communication can be made via modern devices. Yet, long-distance communication can in no way rival the personal and confidential meetings between the representative of the sending State and the Government of the receiving State. As such, diplomats are granted some immunities and privileges to perform the tasks to which they are accredited efficiently.Ã Ã Unfortunately, diplomats started overusing or abusing of the immunities and privileges they were benefitting from. Indeed, immunities ranging from personal immunity from jurisdiction to the inviolability of the diplomatic bag led to abuses of the protection afforded by the VCDR. Furthermore, since the staff and families of diplomatic officials also enjoy privileges and immunities, there were abuses by them also. Hence, members of diplomatic missions and their families are immune from local punishment and they seem to be above the local law. Although the VCDR provides remedies against diplomats, staff and families who commit abuses, it seems that these are not enough to suppress wrongdoings. Nevertheless, the receiving States are not left to their misfortune without remedies. Indeed, certain measures are provided for in the VCDR to hinder the condemnable acts of the diplomats such as the declaration that the diplomat is persona non grata. Additionally, various acts in the UK, the US and the Republic of South Africa will be analysed in order to show which measures were taken by a few Governments to try to curb diplomatic abuses. Without any doubt, the VCDR did not prepare for some eventualities and measures to deter the unwarranted acts by diplomats are lacking. Although it would be difficult to totally eliminate the abuses, measures can be taken to reduce them considerably. It is to be noted that only selected articles of the VCDR which deal with immunity, privileges and abuses will be dealt with in this dissertation. Moreover, for illustration and analysis purposes, some cases prior to 1961 will be used throughout the dissertation. This dissertation will firstly explore the history behind Diplomatic Relations and the theories which moulded diplomatic immunity and privileges (Chapter 1). Secondly, the different types of immunities and privileges granted to diplomats will be elaborated upon (Chapter 2). Next, abuses by diplomatic agents and their families will be dealt with (Chapter 3). Furthermore, an overview on existing measures to curb abuses will follow (Chapter 4). Finally, several suggestions have been put forward to hinder such abuses (Chapter 5). ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ CHAPTER 1: HISTORICAL ORIGIN AND SOURCES OF LAW OF DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY Modern Diplomatic Law was shaped by events and ideas since time immemorial. According to some authorsÃ Ã , diplomatic immunity existed since the era of cavemen -who would probably communicate with one another to draw the limits of their hunting grounds. This chapter will deal with the most important parts of the historical development of diplomatic relations (1.1). Then, the VCDR will be analysed (1.2). Eventually, an overview will follow on other important sources of Diplomatic Law (1.3). HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS There were many stages of development of diplomatic relations in the past (1.1.1). As from antiquity itself, modern forms of protection were given to envoys. It is found that diplomatic relations were also influenced by Natural Law from the 12th to the 17th century and positivist writers after the 17th century.Ã Ã Finally, there were also theroies which shaped diplomatic immunity (1.1.2). DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS IN THE PAST The preamble of the VCDR states that: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Recalling that peoples of all nations from ancient times have recognized the status of diplomatic agentsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Building on this statement, it is affirmed that Diplomatic Immunity has undeniably been a facet of diplomatic relations for countless years. In fact, it is regarded as one of the oldest branches of International Law. Indeed, since time immemorial, envoys were selected and sent to forward messages, obtain replies and give report on news from receiving States. Necessity was a principle which forced most States to give diplomats protection, both within the host State and in States of transit.Ã Ã In Antiquity, diplomatic immunity was regarded as a divine right. The main factors ensuring immunity and privileges were culture, language and religion. The ideas and customs of the Roman community concerning immunity have been categorically established and these created the foundation of modern practices. The earliest record of organised diplomatic law is found in Ancient Greece whereby the Greek Government gave special status to foreign representatives.Ã Ã During the Renaissance, scholars and others laid emphasis on the idea that Natural Law gave a strong argument for the protection of envoys during their official functions.Ã Ã The most important principle of the Naturalist doctrine was that of necessity; it was necessary to protect ambassadors because of the importance of their functions.Ã Ã Grotius, a naturalist writer, arrived at the conclusion that immunity was based on Natural Law; he argued that the safety of diplomats was far more important than any advantage which could be derived from the punishment of his crimes. His security would be challenged if he were to be prosecuted by States other than the sending State.Ã Ã By the 19th century, Natural law declined and there was a shift to positive law. One positivist theorist, Van Bynkershoek, pointed out that the law of Nations was based on the common consent between Nations through international customs or through treaties. He continued by expanding the concept of immunity and justifying it, whether there were questionable acts or not, by saying that an ambassador acted through wine and women, through favours and foul devicesÃ Ã . Certainly, the evolution of diplomatic relations did not stop here. Immunities and privileges developed partly as a result of sovereign immunity and the independence and equality of States.Ã Ã Further, as there were more and more permanent missions as compared to ad hoc ones, Sovereigns accepted the importance of ambassadors to negotiate and collect information.Ã Ã In 1815, it is found that Vienna was the first site of a Congress for diplomatic agents. Next, the first international attempt to codify the Diplomatic Law was in 1895 with the Draft Convention of the Institute of International Law.Ã Ã In 1927, the League of Nations Committee of Experts for the Progressive Codification of International Law made a report analysing existing customary law of diplomatic privileges and immunities. This aimed at providing a temporary instrument until a more comprehensive codification could be written.Ã Ã Eventually, Diplomatic Law further progressed with the Havana Convention on Diplomatic Officers 1928. According to its preamble, diplomats should not claim immunities which were not fundamental in performing his official tasks. THEORIES WHICH SHAPED DIPLOMATIC IMMUNITY With a further step towards modern immunity with the creation of resident or permanent embassies, three theories were developed and these moulded diplomatic law since the 16th century.Ã Ã These theories are Exterritoriality, Personal Representation and Functional Necessity. Each played a prominent role during different periods in history. (a) PERSONAL REPRESENTATION The basis of this theory was that diplomats received immunity as if they were the foreign sovereign. This was out of respect and avoided any form of conflict as the sending State was pleased. In other words, a diplomats immunity arose because he was an extension of the ruler sending him. The representative was treated as though the sovereign of that country was conducting the negotiations, making alliances or refusing requestsÃ Ã . The great theorists of the 16th and 17th century like Grotius, Van Bynkershoek, Wicquefort, Montesquieu and Vattel supported the use of this theoryÃ Ã . In The Schooner Exchange v McFaddonÃ Ã , the Court held that, by regarding the ambassador as the sovereigns representative, it ensured their stature. If they were not accorded exemptions, every sovereign would cast a shadow on his own dignity when sending an ambassador to a foreign State. (b) EXTERRITORIALITY This theory is based on the Roman law principle whereby a man took his own lands law with him when he went to another landÃ Ã . The crux of this theory is that the offices, property and homes of diplomats and even their persons were to be treated, throughout their stay, as though they were on the territory of the sending State. Any crimes committed by the members of that embassy could not be lawfully prosecuted in the receiving State. This theory soon developed and extended to the staff and family of diplomats. Authors like Emmerich de Vattel and James Lorimer emphasised that an ambassadors house and person are not domiciled in the receiving State, but in the sending StateÃ Ã . In King v GuerchyÃ Ã , an English Court did not prosecute a French ambassador for an attempt to assassinate another Frenchman. The Court held that an ambassador owes no subjection to the Courts of the country to which he is sent. He is supposed, by a fiction of law, to be still resident in his own countryÃ Ã . In Taylor v BestÃ Ã , Jervis CJ declared that the basis of privilege is that the ambassador is assumed to be in his own country. The Attorney-General in Magdalena Steam Navigation Co v MartinÃ Ã expressed similar opinions. (c) FUNCTIONAL NECESSITY Functional necessity aims not only at allowing the individual diplomat to function freely and effectively, but also ensuring the efficient functioning of the diplomatic process as a whole. This requires the fullest protection be given even if the diplomat goes beyond his functionÃ Ã . This is based on the idea that immunity is necessary and recognised for the efficient functioning of the diplomat. This theory gained impetus due to the expansion of permanent resident embassies. It is incorporated in the VCDR as the dominant theory in the preamble. Functional necessity limits immunities and privileges to those functions performed by the diplomat in his official capacity. When performing an official task, diplomats need to be able to move freely and not be obstructed by the receiving State. They must be able to observe and report with confidence without the fear of being reprimandedÃ Ã . This immunity may be understood to mean that diplomats may break the law of the receiving State in order to fulfil their functions. Grotius stresses that an ambassador must be free from all coercion in order to fulfil his dutiesÃ Ã . Vattel placed the greatest emphasis on the theory in order for ambassadors to accomplish the object of their appointment safely, freely, faithfully and successfully by receiving the necessary immunitiesÃ Ã . In the 18th century, the Lord Chancellor in Buvot v. BarbuitÃ Ã declared that diplomatic privileges stem from the necessity that nations need to interact with one another. Similarly, in Parkinson v PotterÃ Ã , the Court observed that an extension of exemption from jurisdiction of the Courts was essential to the duties that the ambassador has to perform. THE VCDRÃ Ã Further along the time-line, in 1961, an international treaty was born to codify the past practices: the VCDR. This is the main source of Diplomatic Law and which is embodied into a comprehensive and widely accepted international treaty which was signed by 179 parties. It was adopted on 18 April 1961 during the UN Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities held in Vienna. This Convention bears testament to the efforts of States to reach agreement for the common good. Its provisions marked progression of custom into settled law and resolved areas of contention where practices conflictedÃ Ã . The Convention contains 53 articles that govern the behaviour of diplomats, 13 of which address the issue of immunity. Due to the comprehensive formulation of a wide range of aspects of diplomatic law, the VCDR met with a lot of success. Indeed most states were satisfied because of the presence reciprocityÃ Ã which renders each state both a sending and a receiving state. It is to be noted that diplomatic immunity should not be confused with Consular immunityÃ Ã , State immunity, UN immunityÃ Ã and international organisations immunityÃ Ã . Importantly, the VCDR focuses only on permanent envoys and does not deal with ad hoc envoys which are covered by another ConventionÃ Ã . This section will deal with working towards the VCDR (1.2.1). For a better understanding of the VCDR, a brief study on the provisions of the VCDR will follow (1.2.2). 1.2.1 WORKING TOWARDS THE VCDR Before 1961, Diplomatic Law was, to a large extent, customary and it was accompanied by some attempts to codify certain rulesÃ Ã . None of those attempts addressed the field in sufficient detail. In 1957, following the General Assembly Resolution 685, the ILC accepted to prepare a draft Convention on Diplomatic Relations. The drafters had the burdensome task of incorporating the concerns of all countries involved in the early 1960s and a history dating as far as the first civilised settlements. The ILC requested information and opinions from governments so that a worthy document could be drafted. This was necessary in order to eliminate diverging views and customs. While formulating the Convention, the drafters also considered the absolute immunity granted to diplomats since ancient times. In 1961, the Conference was organised to discuss the draft and this was attended by 81 States and several international organisations as observers. These States were able to reach consensus on many issues. The VCDR, based on a series of draft articles, was agreed upon. It solved dissensions concerning State practice, made available additional rules and agreed that customs would govern field which were not dealt with in the VCDRÃ Ã . It is to be noted that although the VCDR successfully codified several practices, not everyone got what they wanted. For instance, the US argued unsuccessfully for retaining many diplomatic privileges while other States like Italy and Argentina wanted limited immunity. Colombia, Egypt, India and Norway amongst others proposed the prohibiting of diplomatic personnel from engaging in commercial activity. 1.2.2 PROVISIONS OF THE VCDRÃ Ã The VCDR provides certain immunities and privileges to different levels of diplomatic officials, their staff and families. For example, diplomats benefit from inviolability of their person, immunity from the law of the receiving state and inviolability of their property. Furthermore, the missions premises and documents are also protected from violation. The VCDR also grants many fiscal privileges and limited customs exemptions. Next, the VCDR gives definitions of some typical functions of the diplomatic mission such as representing the sending State in another stateÃ Ã . The VCDR also lays importance on the duties and rights of the receiving State. Examples are the rights to disapprove a potential head of mission, to decide that a member of the diplomatic mission is persona non grata and to limit the size of the mission amongst others. Additionally, the host state must protect the premises of the mission as well as its communications. Furthermore, the receiving state has to provide adequate facilities so that the mission can function smoothly. It is noteworthy to stress that an accredited person is not exempt from the obligation to obey local law. In fact, he is under an express duty to do so. OTHER IMPORTANT SOURCES OF DIPLOMATIC LAW Apart from the VCDR, Diplomatic Immunity is regulated by other sources of law. Indeed, they deal with aspects which are not covered under the main Convention. As such, there are Optional Protocols (1.3.1), a Convention covering the prevention and the punishment of internationally protected persons (1.3.2) and Municipal Law which is very important for States which are not directly influenced by International Law (1.3.3). 1.3.1 OPTIONAL PROTOCOLS During the UN Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities held in Vienna, 2 Optional Protocols were also adopted. Countries may ratify the main treaty, that is, the VCDR, without necessarily ratifying these optional agreements. These are the Protocol: Concerning Acquisition of Nationality which mainly dictates that the Head of the mission, the staff of the Mission and their families shall not acquire the nationality of the receiving country. Concerning Compulsory Settlement of Dispute. In brief, disputes arising from the interpretation of the VCDR may be brought before the ICJ. As such, article 1 of that Protocol states that: Disputes arising out of the interpretation of the Convention shall lie within the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice and may accordingly be brought before the Court. 1.3.2 THEÃ UN CONVENTION ON THE PREVENTION AND PUNISHMENT OF CRIMES AGAINST INTERNATIONALLY PROTECTED PERSONS, INCLUDING DIPLOMATIC AGENTS 1973 (CPPCPP) The CPPCPP provides that States parties must consider attacks upon diplomats as crimes in internal law and obliges them to extradite or prosecute offenders. Also, in exceptional cases, a diplomat may be arrested or detained on the basis of self-defence or in the interests of protectingÃ human life in the receiving State. A series of kidnappings of senior diplomats occurred in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The object of the kidnappings was always to extract a particular demand from a government. The threat of the execution of a diplomat and the failure to fulfil the demand leads to the refusing government being held responsible for his death. As a consequence of the high incidence of political acts of violence directed against diplomats and other officials, the General Assembly of the UN adopted the CPPCPP. The foreseen offences are primarily murder, kidnapping, attacks upon the person, violent attacks upon official and private premises, and any threats or attempts to commit any of the above offences.Ã Ã Nations ratifying the Prevention and Punishment Convention make these crimes punishable with appropriate penalties, which take into account the gravity of the offence and either extradite offenders or apply the domestic law. Where there is a threat to the safety of a diplomat, such as a mob attack or kidnapping, the receiving State should provide special protection, like an armed guard or bodyguards. 1.3.3 MUNICIPAL LAW Many states are not bound by international law. Indeed, there are rules that treaties made do not have direct effect in national law. As such, it is necessary that those provisions of the Conventions be transformed into municipal law. There are, therefore, a number of Acts of parliament which mirror the VCDR and which also complement it or substitute some of its provisions. In the UK, these include the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987, providing that the consent of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs is required before land can become diplomatic or consular premises and giving him certain powers in respect of disused premises and the Diplomatic Privileges Act 1964 which reflects the provisions of the VCDR. In the Republic of South Africa, there is the Diplomatic Privileges ActÃ Ã which repealed the Diplomatic Immunities Act of 1932 and the Diplomatic Immunities Amendment Act of 1934. In the Republic of Mauritius, the Constitution is the supreme law of the landÃ Ã and International Law has no effects without ratification. As such, laws must be passed at parliamentary level, for example, the Consular Relations ActÃ Ã reflecting the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations 1963 and the Diplomatic Relations ActÃ Ã which reflects the VCDR. ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ
Friday, October 25, 2019
Power of the Word While reading The Color Purple I was shocked by the development of CelieÃ¢â¬â¢s inner-self. Her entire being was defined by those around her. It appeared as if Celie had no hand in creating who she was. I could picture Shug, Mr., and Her father molding CelieÃ¢â¬â¢s body like a piece of clay until Celie truly believed she was an ugly, dumb, and worthless servant. It was shocking to see the destructive power of something as simple as words. Words seem to have the single handed ability to destroy life itself. The power of the word in The Color Purple particularly struck me because I was simultaneously reading The Four Agreements by Don Miguel Ruiz. The Four Agreements is about the wisdom of the ancient Toltec. The Toltec is a way of thinking about life, and of filling ones life with happiness and love. According to Ruiz, the problem with most of us is that we have allowed the world around us to create our agreements for us. Our parents instilled beliefsÃ¢â¬âagreementsÃ¢â¬âinto us from the time we started trying to make sense of the world around us. And what we areÃ¢â¬âwho each of us is as an individual human beingÃ¢â¬âis determined by our agreements. Ultimately, who we are is defined by what we believe and our beliefs shape the world around us. In order to redefine ourselves the Toltec teaches that there are four agreements which we must learn to live by. The first and most important agreement is to be impeccable with your word. The word gives the power to create. The word creates the world around us and is therefore a tool of magic. However, as Ruiz says our word is a double-edged sword, and we can use it to create a beautiful dream, or we can use it to destroy everything around us. Misusing the word creates a living hell. Being impeccable with our word creates beauty, love, and heaven on earth. Ruiz continues to explain that the human mind is a fertile ground where opinions, ideas, and concepts are constantly being planted. Because the word is magic, humans are like magicians, and they are capable of casting spells. If the parents tell a child repeatedly that she is not very pretty, or that he is not very smart, the child will accept this as true. It will become an agreement in the mind of the child.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
School violence poses a great risk in the development of any nation but not only in the US as a whole or the Virgin Islands. School violence is a very serious problem especially in the public schools and it is both found in urban and sub urban areas of the Virgin Islands. It would a wasted effort to try to improve the quality of education without taking school violence as a serious problem, thus looking for ways to solve it no matter the quality of teachers we employ or the curriculum since violence makes learning difficult. School violence comes in very different forms which include; o Intimidation o Gang activity Use of guns and other dangerous weapons o Theft of lockers o Assault or o Anything that will cause a victim Victims of school violence could be teachers, students and members of non teaching staff and ranges from planned attacks to unintentional murders of by standers. There are nearly three million robberies and acts of violence happening in or in the neighborhoods of sch ool campuses yearly according to the National Crime survey of May 2001. This is about sixteen thousand occurrences per school per day and also almost all crimes against teenagers happen in schools or in the neighborhoods (Hurwitz, Menacker, Weldon, 1987 p5). The chances of a violent incident occurring in a school are increased if there is a student with a gun. Possession of guns by students while in school is a common occurrence and many parents are constantly worried about the safety of their kids who are in school. Around 15% of students in the Virgin Islands report the presence of gangs in their schools and many fear of being attacked while in school or on their way to the school and 61% of all crimes are committed by students (Boyer, 2008, p334). There is various prevention measures put in place in the Virgin Islands for controlling school violence. School safety is treated as a priority within each campus and the neighborhood. Programs encompassing parents, students, teachers, police officers, religious leaders, the courts and any other leader who is in charge of ethnic and racial balance in the community. These people help in determining case of planned violence and also setting up plans for stopping acts of violence before they happen. The school environment is set up in such a way that it creates a positive climate for the students. All employees in each school are encouraged to participate in creating this welcoming environment so as to eradicate any negativity in the students, since this goes a long way in reducing cases of violence. Schools have also established a procedures for tracking crimes and for record keeping, it records crime types, when, where and why they happened and any other important data. The data is then examined to determine the trends, the persons involved and any new patterns so as to come with measures of countering it (Furlong, Bates, Smith, 2004 pp240-263). Establishment of communication centers using the latest technologies for that is capable of getting in touch with the appropriate administrators in case of an emergency. These allows for quick response so as minimize chances of aggravating the injuries which might occur during the violence. Students who have the tendency of bringing weapons to school should be counseled, given the necessary support or referred to the suitable resources in the community and where necessary transferred to other schools. Probation officers are placed in campuses in communities experiencing severe cases of violence so as to give the students thorough supervision. Some of the above programs might fail to work in some communities but work in others because school settings are different from one school to the other. Students have formed groups which report any violence acts and the culprits. The youth contact patrols in their campuses and neighborhoods and are provided with adequate security without causing confrontations with those they find engaging in crime (United States District Court (Virgin Islands), 1982 pp290- 296). There is amicable solution of grievances which is done by using dialogue to end conflicts thus making sure that cases of revenge are minimized. This is because if some of these problems are not solved once and for all it might cause planned attacks which can happen even outside the school. Students are encouraged to engage in extra curricular activities during their free time so as to reduce the chances of getting themselves in to drugs, since this is a major cause for violence. Students who are found to be in drugs are counseled and advised to visit rehabilitation centers so that they quit these habits. Some of the traditional methods for crime prevention particularly in cases of indiscipline are limited either by the legislature or the judiciary but parents have the powers to determine the types of punishments to be administered to their children even if it is corporal punishment. It is also difficult to establish the measures that work best due to the fact that schools are of different settings. Some of these measures are limited in public schools since the government has the mandate to ascertain that power is not abused in cases where learning is a must and attending given schools is compulsory. This limitation on public schools makes them more violent as compared to private schools and this encourages the establishment of the private schools since most parents want the best for their children. Some of the legislations are kind of encouraging violence in public schools. But it is advisable for school administrators to keep on innovating new methods for countering this problem and to keep on trying the old ones as well as the established. Parents are also encouraged to take an active role in the up bringing of their children so as top ensure that they grow up in to responsible adults. It is also advisable to break up large schools in to small ones because supervising a small number of students is easier. There should be different schools for boys and girls since there seems to more violence in mixed schools than there are in boys or girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ only schools. The government should also relax some of its legislations so as to allow teachers and parents of public schools to make their own measures for different types of indiscipline in the students (Preventing School Violence: Top Five Ways To Build Stronger Student-adult Relationships, available online).