Thursday, March 19, 2020
French Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns
French Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns There are two kinds of demonstrative pronouns: variable demonstrative pronouns (celui, celle, ceux, celles) which agree in gender and number with their antecedent, and invariable (or indefinite) demonstrative pronouns (ce, ceci, cela, Ã §a), whichÃ do not have an antecedent and their form does not vary. Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns Invariable demonstrative pronouns, also called indefiniteÃ or neuter demonstrative pronouns, do not have a specific antecedent and thus do not have different forms for gender and number. Indefinite demonstrative pronouns can refer to something abstract, like an idea or a situation, or to something indicated but unnamed. On the other hand, a variable demonstrative pronounÃ refers to a specific, previously mentioned noun in a sentence; this pronoun must agree in gender and number with the noun it refers back to.Ã There Are Four Indefinite Demonstrative Pronouns 1. Ce is the impersonal, simple indefinite demonstrative pronoun. It can mean this or it, and is used mainly with the verb Ã ªtre, either in the basic expression cest or in various impersonal expressions, which are expressions without a definite subject that begin with CÃ¢â¬â¹estÃ or IlÃ¢â¬â¹ est. Ã Ã Ã Cest une bonne idÃ ©e!Thats a good idea! Ã Ã Ã Cest difficile faire.Its hard to do. Ã Ã Ã Cest triste de perdre un ami.Ã Its sad to lose a friend. Ã Ã Ã Ãâ°tudier, cest important.Studying is important. Ce may also be followed by devoir or pouvoir Ã ªtre.Ce doit Ã ªtre un bon restaurant.This must be a good restaurant. Ã Ã Ã Ce peut Ã ªtre difficile.This might be difficult. A less common and more formal usage (especially in written French) of ce can be used without a verb: Ã Ã Ã Jai travaillÃ © en Espagne, et ce en tant que bÃ ©nÃ ©vole.I worked in Spain (and this) as a volunteer.Elle la tuÃ ©, et pour ceÃ elle est condamnÃ ©e.She killed him, and therefore/for this she is condemned. Note that ce is also a demonstrative adjective.2. 3. CeciÃ and cela are used as the subject of all other verbs: Ã Ã Ã Ceci va Ã ªtre facile.This is going to be easy. Ã Ã Ã Cela me fait plaisir.That makes me happy. Ceci and cela are used with pouvoir or devoir when those verbs are not followed by Ã ªtre. Ã Ã Ã Ceci peut nous aider.This could help us. Ã Ã Ã Cela doit aller dans la cuisine.That has to go in the kitchen. CeciÃ and cela can also be direct and indirect objects: Ã Ã Ã Donnez-lui cela de ma part.Give him this from me. Ã Ã Ã Qui a fait cela?Who did this? Notes Ceci is the contraction of ce ici (this here), while cela is the contraction of ce l (this there). Ceci is rare in spoken French. Just as l commonly replaces ici in spoken French (Je suis lÃ Ã Im here), French speakers tend to use cela to mean either this or that. Ceci only really comes into play when one wants to distinguish between this and that: Ã Ã Ã Je ne veux pas ceci, je veux cela.I dont want this, I want that. 4. Ãâ¡a is the informal replacement for both cela and ceci. Ã Ã Ã Donne-lui Ã §a de ma part.Give him this from me.Qui a fait Ã §a?Who did this? Ã Ã Ã Ãâ¡a me fait plaisir.That makes me happy. Ã Ã Ã Quest-ce que cest que Ã §a?What is that? Ã Ã Ã Je ne veux pas ceci (or Ã §a),Ã je veux Ã §a.I dont want this, I want that.